The magnificent New Zealand Christmas Tree Metrosideros excelsa [met-roh-SID-er-oss ek-SEL-sa] is a popular plant in its native New Zealand.
The attractive plant stands out when it blooms during Christmas time, due to its red flowers with long stamens against the backdrop of leathery green leaves.
Most people call it the ‘Christmas Tree.’ It’s related to red blooming bottle brush trees and Leptospermum Scoparium (New Zealand Tea Tree) to the Myrtaceae family of plants.
In the wild, it can reach over 80′ feet tall. Luckily, it typically only gets to about 10′ feet when grown in containers outside of its native region.
NOTE: Metrosideros excelsa tree handles drought and salt spray conditions.
For a brighter holiday, learn how to care for the New Zealand Christmas Tree.
Caring For The New Zealand Christmas Tree
Size and Growth
The fast-growing New Zealand Christmas Tree can reach tremendous heights in its native habitat. While it’s technically a shrub, the 80-foot height makes it more of a tree.
When grown in a container, seven to ten feet is the average height. The plant produces green foliage and the rounded leaves have a soft, fuzzy coating.
Flowering and Fragrance
To match the green foliage, the Metrosideros excelsa plant produces bright red flowers in the spring and summer.
Red and green are traditional Christmas colors and the holiday lands during the summertime in the Southern hemisphere.
In the Western hemisphere, the flowers still come in the summer. The red blossoms appear in clusters from two to four-inch stamens. These clusters often reach up to six inches in diameter.
While they don’t produce a scent, they produce a lovely display, making it easy to see why this plant is so popular in its native country.
Light and Temperature
The plant can grow outdoors in USDA hardiness zones 8 to 11. Due to the potential height of the plant, potted growth is still recommended.
It prefers warmer temperatures in the summer and slightly cooler temperatures in the winter.
It also enjoys lots of sunlight, but doesn’t require full sun. It can survive in partial shade if the temperatures don’t get too hot.
If possible, move the plant outdoors during the summer, even in slightly cooler climates. It doesn’t like hot temperatures in closed environments.
The outdoor air is good for the plant and it provides better access to the sunlight.
In the winter, ensure that it doesn’t freeze. Move potted plants indoors, preferably in a room kept in the mid-60s.
Watering and Feeding
The Christmas Tree needs regular watering during the summer. If kept outdoors, it may even need water every day.
When the temperatures start to drop in the fall, begin reducing the frequency of watering. In the winter, water as needed when the soil is nearly dry.
Overwatering or underwatering during this period will discourage the production of healthy buds and blossoms the following year.
Liquid fertilizer may be used during the summer to promote healthy growth.
Soil and Transplanting
Regular potting soil is fine for the New Zealand Christmas Tree. It only needs repotting when it outgrows its container. Wait until the roots begin to push their way out of the pot.
Maintenance & Grooming
Grooming is only needed to manage the growth of the plant. To keep it from growing too tall or too wide, trim back the branches in the spring.
Propagating Pohutukawa (Metrosideros)
Propagation is possible with stem cuttings. The cuttings should be taken in the spring using the following steps:
- Take semi-hard cuttings
- Place three cuttings in one small pot
- Use a potting mix intended for propagation
- If possible, set the pot over a heat source
- Wait five to six weeks for the cuttings to take root
- Trim the young plants when they reach five inches tall
- Trimming the young plants encourages fuller growth in the coming years.
- After the cuttings have taken root, repot into individual pots.
- Continue to repot each year as the plant outgrows its existing pot.
The young plants are often hardy, as the New Zealand Christmas Tree grows quickly. In fact, the young plants may bloom the following year.
Metrosideros Pests or Diseases
Like most plants, it’s important to pay attention to signs of pests. Mealybugs, scale insects, aphids, and whiteflies may attempt to make a home out of the plant.
Deal with these pests immediately to prevent severe infestations. Typically, the insects can be removed by hand using a cloth or spray.
If this doesn’t work, use an insecticide before the infestation gets out of control.
Suggested Metrosideros Excelsa Uses
Due to the height of the plant, the New Zealand Christmas Tree is best suited for life in a large pot. Move the pot outdoors in the summer and indoors during the winter.